What Is The Pituitary Gland?

The endocrine system consists of multiple glands. These glands are distributed throughout the entire body. The primary function of glands is to release hormones.

Every gland in the body is responsible for a specific range of hormones. Some hormones are used to stimulate other glands in the endocrine system.

Others have a more direct effect on certain functions in the body. Together, these hormones help the body function normally. 

Different types of hormones exist in the body. A hormone can be a type of peptide, a derivative of amino acid, or a steroid. The steroid hormones are generally derived from certain types of cholesterol. They bind to specific receptors – this is where the hormones will initiate their function. 

The pituitary gland is part of the endocrine system. It is one of the more essential glands that make up the hormonal system in the human body. The pituitary gland helps stimulate other glands in the body, ultimately assuring a balance in hormone production and secretion. 

In this post, we look at what the pituitary gland is. We will also consider how it works and its specific functions in the human body. Furthermore, the post will also take a closer look at disorders and conditions that affects the pituitary gland. 

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What Is The Pituitary Gland?

The pituitary gland is one of the smaller glands that are part of the endocrine system. Its size is often associated with that of a pea.

The small size of the pituitary gland does not mean it is insignificant. In fact, without the pituitary gland, many areas of the endocrine system will cease to function effectively.

There is a bony hollow behind the nose. The specific region is directly behind the nose’s bridge. This is where the pituitary gland is situated. The pituitary gland is directly connected to the brain. A very thin stalk makes this particular connection. 

Many papers refer to the pituitary gland as the “master gland.” This is due to the fact that it is in control of many other glands that make up the endocrine system. This also means the pituitary gland has a significant impact on hormone balance in the body. 

Some of the glands that are regulated by the pituitary include:

  • Adrenal glands

  • Thyroid gland

In men, the pituitary gland also affects the testicles. Among women, the ovaries are regulated by the pituitary gland. 

There are a few functions that the pituitary gland has. Each function is equally essential at stimulating the endocrine system and controlling the release of hormones. 

Hormones are released directly by the pituitary gland. Two areas of the gland are involved in the secretion of hormones. The posterior and the anterior regions secrete certain hormones. These hormones act as chemical messengers throughout the body. These hormones help to carry messages to specific cells in the body. 

To better understand the pituitary gland, we should consider the specific hormones produced. This helps a person know why the gland is so important. It also ensures a person understands what can go wrong. 

  • Adrenocorticotrophic hormone: Also known as ACTH, this hormone targets the adrenals. The adrenal is stimulated by ACTH. This causes the release of cortisol. Sometimes, the ACTH hormone is also referred to as corticotrophin. 

  • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: Sometimes called thyrotrophin or TSH for short, this hormone is responsible for creating a stimulatory effect on the thyroid gland. Once stimulated, thyroid hormones, including thyroxine and levothyroxine, are released. 

  • Luteinizing hormone: This hormone is paired with the follicle-stimulating hormone. They are called LH and FSH for short. In men, these hormones stimulate the testicles. This helps with the production of both sperm and testosterone. In women, the ovaries are stimulated by LS and FSH. This assists in the production of progesterone and estrogen. The combination of these two hormones is usually called gonadotrophins. 

  • Growth hormone: This is a universal hormone that affects all cells that are found in the human body. The growth hormone is an essential chemical in the process of tissue and cellular repair. It also affects growth at a cellular level. 

  • Anti-diuretic hormone: Commonly known as ADH, this hormone has a direct effect on the kidneys. The hormone helps with the regulation of fluid in the bloodstream. It also affects the regulation of minerals in the body. Other names that the ADH hormone goes by include arginine vasopressin or simply vasopressin. 

  • Oxytocin: Sometimes called the hugging hormone, this hormone affects both the breasts and the uterus. During pregnancy, it affects the contractions experienced in the uterus. Following childbirth, oxytocin continues to play a role. It helps with the production and secretion of breast milk. 

These are not all of the hormones that the pituitary gland makes. Others include:

  • Prolactin

  • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

What Role Does It Play In Men’s Health?

The pituitary gland plays a critical role in both male and female health. In men, several functions depend on the secretion of hormones from this particular gland.

When there is not a sufficient level of hormones secreted by the pituitary gland, a man may experience serious issues with his reproductive health. 

This is because the pituitary gland is responsible for making Follicle-stimulating hormone and Luteinising hormone. Both of these hormones are involved in the stimulation of the testicles. 

The testicles have two important functions:

  1. They produce testosterone. This is considered the primary sex hormone among men. It contributes to several essential functions that are related to male reproductive well-being. 

  2. They produce sperm. This is another essential part of reproduction. Sperm is critical for reproduction to be possible. 

Testosterone is involved in the regulation of a man’s libido. When levels of testosterone decline, so do his sex drive. Testosterone does not directly affect the ability to have an erection. It still, however, affects erectile function indirectly.

A man’s sex drive has an impact on his abilities in the bedroom. When a man has a low sex drive, he may not feel in the mood for sex. Even when stimulated, there may be a poor erection due to the low interest in sexual activity. 

This is not the only function of testosterone in the male body, however. During puberty, testosterone is critical for the development of a boy’s testes and their penis. It also causes the boy’s voice to become deeper as he hits puberty. Pubic hair, as well as facial hair, also depend on the presence of testosterone at this stage of life. 

In adult men, testosterone helps with the maintenance of muscle strength. Physical strength tends to weaken when a man has a decline in his testosterone levels. Additionally, muscle size is also related to testosterone. A higher level of testosterone gives a man the ability to build larger muscles in a shorter period of time. It also helps in the maintenance of the muscle size that has been achieved. 

Testosterone is involved in the regulation of bone health too. A higher level of testosterone is associated with stronger bones. Bone density is greater in these men. 

What Can Go Wrong With My Pituitary Gland?

Certain conditions can affect the pituitary gland. Some conditions may suppress the function of the pituitary gland. Other conditions might instead cause the gland to become overactive. Understanding the diseases that affect the pituitary gland is important – and recognizing symptoms can help a man take action earlier. 

Pituitary gland tumors are some of the most concerning issues with the gland. Not all of the tumors that develop are cancerous. Some people have developed benign tumors, but these can still pressure the gland and cause problems with its functions.

On the other hand, cases of adenomas in the pituitary gland have been noted too. This relates to tumors or growths that may be cancerous. When adenomas develop, they will generally remain within the perimeter of the pituitary gland. The directly surrounding tissue may be affected by the growths. This type of tissue will not, however, spread toward other regions of a patient’s body. 

Vision loss and headaches are common symptoms caused by pressure that a tumor applies to the brain. Sexual dysfunction, increased urination, weight changes, weakness, and cold feeling are possible symptoms of unbalanced hormones. This is due to a reduction in the anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary hormone secretion. The symptoms may be a sign of a decline in pituitary hormone levels

There are a few other conditions that may also affect the pituitary gland. Examples of these conditions include:

Both an overactive or underactive thyroid can cause problems. This is why patients need to be aware of changes that may signal a change in hormone balance.

When hormones are unbalanced, there are cases where the pituitary gland is the case. This is generally due to the significant roles that this gland plays in the human body. 

A doctor will generally need to conduct a few tests to determine if the pituitary gland in a patient is causing symptoms. 


The pituitary gland is an essential part of the endocrine system. It controls the regulation of multiple hormones in the body. While the pituitary gland is small, its functions are critical to the well-being of the human body. Factors like a pituitary disorder or a pituitary tumor can adversely affect the function of the gland. This may lead to significant alterations in growth, the regulation of other hormones, and blood pressure levels. 

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  1. MSD Manual. (2019) Endocrine Function. [online] Available at: https://www.msdmanuals.com/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/biology-of-the-endocrine-system/endocrine-function#:~:text=The%20main%20function%20of%20endocrine,coordinating%20activities%20throughout%20the%20body.
  2. Mayo Clinic. Pituitary Tumors. [online] Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pituitary-tumors/symptoms-causes/syc-20350548#:~:text=The%20pituitary%20gland%20is%20a,growth%2C%20blood%20pressure%20and%20reproduction.
  3. The Pituitary Foundation. What is the pituitary gland? [online] Available at: https://www.pituitary.org.uk/information/what-is-the-pituitary-gland/
  4. The Pituitary Foundation. Your hormones. [online] Available at: https://www.pituitary.org.uk/information/hormones/
  5. Harvard Medical School. [2019] Testosterone – What It Does And Doesn’t Do. [online] Available at: https://www.health.harvard.edu/drugs-and-medications/testosterone–what-it-does-and-doesnt-do

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