Prostatitis

A Guide to Using Avelox (Moxifloxacin HCL)

Avelox is a type of antibiotic used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections.

Doctors usually prescribe it as the first treatment for acute/chronic bacterial prostatitis.

Although it can effectively treat infections, Avelox is linked to some severe side effects.

In this article, we will discuss what Avelox is, what conditions it’s used for, and the side effects it can have.

What is Avelox used for?

Avelox (Moxifloxacin HCL) is a fluoroquinolone, a group of antibiotics that act against bacteria.

Fluoroquinolones like Avelox are valuable in life-threatening infections. They are also very useful when other antibiotics fail.

Avelox is commonly prescribed to treat cases of acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Bacterial prostatitis accounts for about 5-10% of all prostatitis cases.

Antibiotic medication is typically given to get rid of the germ that is causing bacterial prostatitis.

However, despite its effectiveness, it has been associated with permanent damage to the nervous system. Long-lasting side effects include:

  • Tendon problems (tendon rupture). This can happen to any patient, but the risk is more elevated in older patients (over 60).

  • QT prolongation, muscle weakness

  • Problems with memory and sensory organs have been reported.

What does Avelox treat?

Depending on your location, Avelox is approved for treating acute bacterial sinusitis or exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, skin structure infection, and abdominal infections.

It is not useful for viral infections like flu and the common cold, and inappropriate use can increase the risk of antibiotics resistance.

Your doctor will help you decide if Avelox is suitable for your infection.

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommends the restriction of oral moxifloxacin formulations to cases when other antibacterial drugs cannot be used or have failed.

Similarly, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires a warning on fluoroquinolone medications. This is to alert patients of the risk of tendon damage and peripheral neuropathy.

Peripheral neuropathy is damage to the nerves that send information to and from the brain and whole body.

The symptoms may include numbness and shooting pain, depending on the specific nerves disrupted.

It is better to avoid using fluoroquinolone antibiotics when:

How often do you have to take Avelox?

Your healthcare provider should give you the necessary medication instructions to follow.

The usual dose of Avelox is once every 24 hours. However, the duration of your Avelox medication will depend on the type of infection.

Side effects of Avelox

Though Avelox is effective against a wide range of bacteria, severe and even life-threatening reactions have been reported. These reactions include:

  • Peripheral neuropathy

  • Central nervous

  • System disturbances (anxiety, depression, and headaches)

  • Tendon rupture

  • Headache

  • Dizziness

  • Anxiety and agitation

  • Itchy skin

  • Nausea

  • Stomach pain

Some of the severe adverse reactions can start within hours to weeks after taking Avelox. They can occur in all age groups with or without known risk factors.

  • Peripheral neuropathy: Avelox is linked with an increased risk of peripheral neuropathy. This may manifest as either abnormal sensation or reduce sensitivity to sensory stimuli. Cases of general weakness have been observed in some patients. Some experience the neuropathy immediately after the first treatment. Sadly, Avelox may result in permanent nerve damage. You should monitor the side effects of peripheral neuropathy, such as pain and weakness.

  • Central nervous system effects: Avelox may induce central nervous system (CNS) reactions. Convulsions and a range of mental health disorders can occur after Avelox medication. Further, existing psychological conditions can exacerbate Avelox’s CNS side effects. You should inform your doctor about your health to help determine your risk of developing CNS complications.

  • QT Prolongation: Avelox can cause delays in the regular heart rhythm. Note that existing conditions can increase your risk of drug-induced QT prolongation. If you have any of these conditions, consult with your doctor before taking Avelox.

  • Other potentially fatal adverse reactions: Severe fever, skin reactions, (like Stevens-Johnson syndrome) skin rash and inflammation of several organs, including the blood vessels, lung, kidney, and liver.

What should you do if you experience any side effects of Avelox?

Some of the adverse reactions associated with Avelox can be fatal. Thus, it is essential to seek immediate medical help if you experience any of the side effects highlighted above.

You should discuss with your doctor about supportive measures before initiating Avelox medication.

What medications does Avelox interact with?

Fluoroquinolones are among the most commonly used agents in inpatient care environments. This high frequency increases the risk of drug interactions with non-antimicrobials drugs.

Such interactions often affect fluoroquinolones by reducing its bioavailability and effectiveness.

Interference with Avelox absorption results in lower systemic concentrations, reducing its efficiency.

Because Avelox is used to treat complicated infection, reduced clinical efficacy can be fatal.

It is not clear if separating the dose of administration improves interactions. But it is always advised to take Avelox 4 hours or 8 hours before or after taking these medications.

  • Warfarin: Warfarin (also called Coumadin) slows down your body’s process of blood clotting. It has been shown that Avelox enhances the anticoagulant activity of warfarin. Because infection induces inflammation, you may experience increased anticoagulant activity.

  • Antidiabetic drugs: Glucose imbalance, either hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, have been reported. Uncorrected blood sugar disturbances can lead to a fatal outcome. Careful monitoring is required to reduce the risk of adverse reactions. Your doctor may need to change your medication if you experience blood glucose disturbances.

  • Anti-inflammatory: Treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs, especially (NSAID) may increase your risk of central nervous system reactions.

What are the symptoms of drug interaction with Avelox?

Most of the unwanted drug interactions with Avelox will reduce its absorption and efficacy.

The interaction with anticoagulants and NSAIDs may increase your risk of dangerous bleeding. You may experience symptoms associated with increased activity of these agents, including;

  • Severe bleeding.

  • Red or brown urine.

  • Discomfort and swelling after an injury.

  • Injury independent bruising.

  • Dizziness and vision modifications.

Interference with Avelox absorption is likely to change the efficacy and safety of your medication.

This may increase the severity of infections and the associated symptoms such as:

  • Changes in body temperature.

  • Tiredness.

  • Painful urination.

  • Vomiting.

  • Sore mouth.

  • General body pain.

Though your symptoms will depend on the exact drug-drug interactions occurring with Avelox. You should seek immediate medical help if you experience many of the above symptoms.

Dosage for Avelox

You can take Avelox with or without food. You should try to be consistent about what time you receive your medication daily.

You may experience rapid improvements in your symptoms. However, you should finish the full prescribed course.

Stopping earlier or skipping doses can increase the risk of developing a resistant infection. Take all medications according to your healthcare provider’s instructions.

The usual dose of Avelox is 400 mg every 24 hours over a variable duration. Your healthcare team will determine the length of your medication based on the type of infection.

Conclusion

Avelox (moxifloxacin hydrochloride) is effective against a broad range of bacteria. It is particularly useful when other antibiotics cannot be used or have stopped working.

Treatment with 400mg once daily has been shown to treat many serious infections. However, the side effects are a source of concern and can be fatal or permanent. Unwanted drug interactions can reduce the effectiveness of Avelox.

You should tell your doctor about all the medicines you are currently taking.

Inappropriate use of antibiotics, including moxifloxacin hydrochloride, promotes the development of antibiotic resistance. You should seek medical help if you are concerned about the side effects of Avelox.

Sources

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    Chemotherapy 45, 583–590.
  5. Pitman, S.K., Hoang, U.T., Wi, C.H., Alsheikh, M., Hiner, D.A., Percival, K.M., 2019 Revisiting Oral Fluoroquinolone and Multivalent Cation Drug-Drug Interactions: Are They Still Relevant? Antibiotics 8, 108.
  6. Polk, R.E., 1989. Drug-drug interactions with ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones. The American journal of medicine 87, S76–S81.
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  8. Stass, Heino, Kubitza, D., 2001. Effects of iron supplements on the oral bioavailability of moxifloxacin, a novel 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone, in humans. Clinical
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